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Classification and Types of Pumps

The pump is a mechanical device used for raising liquid from lower level to higher level. This is achieved by creating low pressure at the pump inlet and high pressure at the pump outlet. Due to low inlet pressure, the liquid rises from where it is available. High outlet pressure forces the liquid to where it is supplied or stored. Work done in a pump has done with the help of prime mover. Mechanical energy converted into pressure energy in a pump. There are many types of pumps or classification of pumps available for different purposes. Considering the basic principle of pump operation, Pumps are divided into two main groups: Rotodynamic pumps (Centrifugal Pump) and Positive Displacement Pumps (Reciprocating Pump and Rotary pumps).

Classification/ Types of Pumps:

  1. Rotodynamic Pumps

Rotodynamic pumps further classified as centrifugal pumps. These types of pumps used centrifugal force to transfer liquid from one place to another. These provide non-pulsating/ uniform flow.

Types of Centrifugal pumps

According to Impeller position

  • Horizontal pump
  • Vertical pump

According to Number of stages

  • Single stage
  • Multi-stage

According to Impeller type

  • Single suction
  • Double suction
  • Shrouding design

Shrouding design impeller further classified as:

  • Open
  • Semi Shrouded
  • Fully Shrouded

According to the direction of flow

  • Radial flow
  • Mixed flow
  • Axial flow/Propeller

According to casing split

  • Axial split
  • Radial split
  • Double casing-Barrel

According to energy conversion

  • Volute
  • Double volute
  • Diffuser Vanes
  1. Positive Displacement Pumps

Positive displacement pump trap liquid at the suction of the pump and pushes that quantity of liquid out to the discharge of the pump. The pressure produced by a positive displacement pump depends upon the amount of force exerted on the piston. PD pumps further classified as:

Reciprocating Pump

  • Piston pump
  • Plunger pump
  • Diaphragm pump

Rotary pumps

  • Vane pump
  • Screw pump
  • Gear pump
  • Lobe pump
  • Sliding pump

Special Purpose Pumps:

Types of Vacuum pumps

  • Mechanical Vacuum pump (PD/Rotary type)
  • Vapour vacuum pump
  • Diffusion pump
  • Ejector pumps

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