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Difference between Centrifugal pump and Reciprocating pump

Difference between Centrifugal pump and Reciprocating pump

Centrifugal pump is a rotodynamic pump that uses kinetic energy to transfer fluid from low pressure to high pressure while the reciprocating pump uses a piston (suction and discharge stroke) to transfer fluid. Centrifugal pump is the most popular pump as compared to the reciprocating pump. There are many Differences between the Centrifugal pump and the reciprocating pump.

1. Centrifugal pump is a rotary pump uses the kinetic energy of impeller to transfer liquid.

A reciprocating pump is a positive displacement type pump which is forced through the piston.

2. Centrifugal pump provides a steady flow (continuous discharge).

The reciprocating pump provides pulsating flow.

3. Centrifugal pump uses uniform torque.

Reciprocating pump torque is not uniform.

4. Centrifugal pump discharge is inversely proportional to the viscosity of working fluid.

In Reciprocating pump viscosity of working fluid does not affect the pump discharge rate.

5. Centrifugal pump gives high efficiency or high discharge for a low head.

The reciprocating pump gives low efficiency or low discharge for a low head.

6. Centrifugal pump has a compact design that requires less floor space.

The reciprocating pump needs more space. With same pump capacity, Reciprocating pump needs 6 to 8 times more space as compared to Centrifugal pump.

7. Centrifugal pumps can be operated with a close outlet valve for some period of time.

Reciprocating pump discharge valve must be opened before the startup of the pump.

8. Centrifugal pumps use for all types of fluids.

A reciprocating pump is not suitable for viscous fluids.

9. Centrifugal pumps are high-speed pumps directly coupled with the motor.

Reciprocating pumps have less speed (belt driven).

10. Centrifugal pump needs priming before startup, otherwise, the pump will not working properly.

No need of priming for the reciprocating pump.

11. Centrifugal pump initial cost is low.

The reciprocating pump has a high initial cost which is equal to four times of centrifugal pump.

12. Centrifugal pump has less noise.

The reciprocating pump has more noise.

13. Centrifugal pump requires less maintenance cost.

Reciprocating pump requires more maintenance cost that will ultimately increase operational cost.

14. Centrifugal pump installation is easy.

Reciprocating pump installation is more difficult.

15. Centrifugal pump simple in construction (less running and maintenance cost)

Reciprocating pumps are complicated in construction (high running and maintenance cost).

16. Centrifugal pump gross weight is less.

Reciprocating pump gross weight is high.

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